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ALENDRONATE MODULATES CYTOKINE RESPONSES IN HEALTHY YOUNG INDIVIDUALS AFTER BCG VACCINATION.

Immunology Letters 2024 March 12
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces memory characteristics in innate immune cells and their progenitors, a process called trained immunity mediated by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming. Cholesterol synthesis plays an amplifying role in trained immunity through mevalonate release. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), such as alendronate, can inhibit cholesterol synthesis. We explored their effects on trained immunity induced by BCG in a placebo-controlled clinical study (NL74082.091.20) in young, healthy individuals. Participants receiving single-dose oral alendronate on the day of BCG vaccination had more neutrophils and plasma cells one month after treatment. Alendronate led to reduced proinflammatory cytokine production by PBMCs stimulated with heterologous bacterial and viral stimuli one month later. Furthermore, the addition of alendronate transcriptionally suppressed multiple immune response pathways in PBMCs upon stimulation. Our findings indicate that N-BPs modulate the long-lasting effects of BCG vaccination on the cytokine production capacity of innate immune cells.

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