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Hematological Indices in COVID-19 Patients with Rhinosinusitis Mucormycosis.

INTRODUCTION: Rhinosinusitis mucormycosis (RM) is an invasive opportunistic fungal infection, especially among COVID-19 patients. The current study aimed to assess the peripheral blood hematological disorders of COVID-19 patients-associated RM.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: During ten month, in two COVID-19 centers in Mashhad, Iran, from June 2021 to March 2022, eighty-three patients suspected of COVID-19 with rhinosinusitis or rhino-orbital mucormycosis participated in this study. The hematological indices of these patients were measured by independent sample T-test or Mann-Whitney test for quantitative data, and the qualitative variables were analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test in SPSS version 20 at a significance level of 0.05.

RESULTS: Of the COVID-19 patients, 40 (48.2%) were affected by RM, and leukocytosis due to neutrophilia was observed in 30% of them. Leukocyte counts were normal in 10 (25%) patients, but 1 (2.5%) and 3 (7.5%) had leukopenia and lymphopenia, respectively. Leukocytosis plus lymphopenia was observed in 7 (17.5%) patients. Also, the synchronicity of leukopenia and lymphopenia was seen in 5 (12.5%) patients. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, and neutropenia have occurred concurrently in 2 (5%) patients. The complete blood count (CBC) showed that RBCs, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), MCH, MCHC, platelet (PLT), and lymphocytes decreased while neutrophils increased.

CONCLUSION: Among the hematological parameters, leukocytosis due to neutrophilia and reduction in Hb, HCT, and PLT are more dominant factors in COVID-19 patients-associated RM.

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