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Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pediatric Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from inpatients and outpatients at Beijing Children's Hospital.

BACKGROUND: Understanding the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) isolates is important for pneumonia treatment and prevention. This research aimed to explore the epidemiological characteristics of S. pneumoniae isolated from pediatric inpatients and outpatients during the same period.

METHODS: S. pneumoniae were isolated from unsterile samples of inpatients and outpatients younger than five years old between March 2013 and February 2014. The serotypes were determined using diagnostic pneumococcal antisera. The resistance of each strain to 13 antibiotics was tested using either the E-test or the disc diffusion method. The Sequence Types (STs) were analyzed via Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST).

RESULTS: The dominant serotypes obtained from inpatients were 19F (32.9 %), 19A (20.7 %), 23F (10.7 %), 6A (10.0 %), and 14 (8.6 %), while those from outpatients were 19F (13.6 %), 23F (12.9 %), 6A (10.0 %), 6B (10.0 %), and 19A (7.9 %). The coverage rates of 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) formulations were high in both groups. The nonsusceptibility to penicillin, cefuroxime, imipenem, erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole among the inpatient isolates was 7.1 %, 92.8 %, 65.7 %, 100 %, and 85.0 %, respectively, while that among the outpatient isolates was 0.7 %, 50.0 %, 38.6 %, 96.4 %, and 65.7 %, respectively. There were 45 and 81 STs detected from the pneumococci isolated from inpatients and outpatients, respectively. CC271 was common among both inpatients and outpatients (43.6 % and 14.3 %).

CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal vaccine-related serotypes are prevalent among both inpatients and outpatients, especially among inpatients, who exhibit more severe antibiotic resistance. Therefore, universal immunization with PCV13 would decrease the hospitalization rate due to S. pneumoniae and the antibiotic resistance rate of S. pneumoniae.

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