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Cooperative induction of CXCL chemokines by inflammatory cytokines and oxidized phospholipids.

Immunology 2024 March 12
Inflammation is initiated and driven by a mixture of mediators, which modify effects of each other. This study analysed in vitro pro-inflammatory activity of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β) in a combination with a lipid DAMP molecule, oxidized palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC). The study was performed on endothelial and monocytic cell lines. The cells were treated with different concentrations of TNFα or IL-1β, OxPAPC and their combinations, either in the presence or absence of drugs regulating inflammation. Pro-inflammatory effects of TNFα/IL-1β and OxPAPC were estimated by analysis of chemokines CXCL8, CXCL2 and CXCL3 by ELISA and RT-PCR. Toxicity was determined by analysis of metabolic activity. Statistical significance was estimated by ANOVA and Dunnett's test. OxPAPC was a much weaker chemokine inducer as compared to TNFα or IL-1β. However, OxPAPC and TNFα/IL-1β together induced effects that were significantly stronger than the arithmetical sum of individual effects. This cooperative action of OxPAPC and TNFα was reversed by inhibitors of p38 MAPK. We hypothesise that the boosting of TNFα and IL-1β effects by OxPAPC may be more pathologically important than the action of the lipid alone. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK may become a tool for analysis of pathological role of oxidized phospholipids.

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