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Review and update on the management of triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in professional athletes.

Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries are common in amateur and professional sports. These injuries are mainly caused by acute or chronic repetitive axial loads on the wrist, particularly on the ulnar side and in association with rotations or radial/ulnar deviations. In order to treat professional athletes, a detailed specific knowledge of the pathology is needed. Moreover, the clinician should fully understand the specific and unique environment and needs of the athletes, their priorities and goals, the type of sport, the time of the season, and the position played. An early diagnosis and appropriate management with the quickest possible recovery time are the uppermost goals for both the athlete and the surgeon. A compromise between conservative vs surgical indications, athletes' needs and expectations, and financial implications should be achieved. Arthroscopic procedures should be timely planned when indicated as they could allow early diagnosis and treatment at the same time. Conservative measures are often used as first line treatment when possible. Peripheral lesions are treated by arthroscopic repair, whilst central lesions are treated by arthroscopic debridement. Further procedures (such as the Wafer procedure, ulnar osteotomies, etc. ) have specific indications and great implications with regard to rehabilitation.

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