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Omicron breakthrough infections after triple-dose inactivated COVID-19 vaccination: A comprehensive analysis of antibody and T-cell responses.

Immunology 2024 March 11
This study longitudinally evaluated the immune response in individuals over a year after receiving three doses of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, focusing on reactions to Omicron breakthrough infections. From 63 blood samples of 37 subjects, results showed that the third booster enhanced the antibody response against Alpha, Beta, and Delta VOCs but was less effective against Omicron. Although antibody titres decreased post-vaccination, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses, both CD4+ and CD8+ , remained stable. Omicron breakthrough infections significantly improved neutralization against various VOCs, including Omicron. However, the boost in antibodies against WT, Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants was more pronounced. Regarding T cells, breakthrough infection predominantly boosted the CD8+ T-cell response, and the intensity of the spike protein-specific T-cell response was roughly comparable between WT and Omicron BA.5.

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