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Prophylactic early low-dose hydrocortisone and survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia among extremely preterm infants born at 22-27 weeks' gestation.

OBJECTIVE: To compare survival without BPD among extremely preterm infants (EPI) who received prophylactic early low-dose hydrocortisone (PEH) with those who did not (non-PEH).

STUDY DESIGN: This single-center retrospective study compared risk-adjusted rates of survival without BPD, BPD, bowel perforation, and late-onset sepsis among infants (22-27 weeks' gestation at birth) who received PEH (n = 82) and who did not (n = 205).

RESULTS: Infants in the PEH group were of lower gestational age, lower birthweight, and higher day-1 risk of death/BPD. After adjusting for risk of death/BPD, PEH-treated infants demonstrated increased survival without BPD (aOR 2.04, 95%CI 1.1-3.7), and lower BPD rates (aOR 0.46, 95%CI 0.25-0.87). Importantly, bowel perforation or sepsis rate were similar among both groups.

CONCLUSION: After risk adjustment, PEH-treated infants demonstrated improved survival without BPD and did not increase rates of bowel perforation or sepsis. In our cohort of infants, PEH was safe and effective among the sickest preterm neonates.

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