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Higher fluid and lower caloric intakes: associated risk of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ELBW infants.

OBJECTIVE: To examine nutritional intake profiles and growth trajectories of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who develop severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study using multiple logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations (GEE) to adjust for matching.

RESULTS: Cumulative and mean fluid intakes were higher (p = 0.003) and caloric intakes lower (p < 0.0001) through week two in infants who developed severe BPD (n = 120) versus those without severe BPD (n = 104). Mean caloric intake through week 12 was lower in infants who developed severe BPD (102 ± 10.1 vs. 107 ± 8.5 kcal/kg/day, p < 0.0001). In the logistic regression models, lower mean caloric intake through week 12 was associated with increased risk of developing severe BPD. Linear growth reduced the odds of BPD by ~30% for each Z-score point.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher fluid and lower total caloric intakes and reductions in linear growth were independently associated with an increased risk of developing severe BPD in ELBW infants.

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