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Inflammation as a cause of acute myocardial infarction in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm.

World Journal of Cardiology 2024 Februrary 27
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a group of diseases characterized by the clonal proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor or stem cells. They are clinically classifiable into four main diseases: chronic myeloid leukemia, essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and primary myelofibrosis. These pathologies are closely related to cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases due to the increased risk of arterial thrombosis, the most common underlying cause of acute myocardial infarction. Recent evidence shows that the classical Virchow triad (hypercoagulability, blood stasis, endothelial injury) might offer an explanation for such association. Indeed, patients with MPN might have a higher number and more reactive circulating platelets and leukocytes, a tendency toward blood stasis because of a high number of circulating red blood cells, endothelial injury or overactivation as a consequence of sustained inflammation caused by the neoplastic clonal cell. These abnormal cancer cells, especially when associated with the JAK2V617F mutation, tend to proliferate and secrete several inflammatory cytokines. This sustains a pro-inflammatory state throughout the body. The direct consequence is the induction of a pro-thrombotic state that acts as a determinant in favoring both venous and arterial thrombus formation. Clinically, MPN patients need to be carefully evaluated to be treated not only with cytoreductive treatments but also with cardiovascular protective strategies.

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