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Neuroprotective efficacy of hypothermia and Inter-alpha Inhibitor Proteins after hypoxic ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats.

Therapeutic hypothermia is the standard of care for hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Inter-alpha Inhibitor Proteins (IAIPs) attenuate brain injury after HI in neonatal rats. Human (h) IAIPs (60 ​mg/kg) or placebo (PL) were given 15 ​min, 24 and 48 ​h to postnatal (P) day-7 rats after carotid ligation and 8% oxygen for 90 ​min with (30 ​°C) and without (36 ​°C) exposure to hypothermia 1.5 ​h after HI for 3 ​h. Hemispheric volume atrophy (P14) and neurobehavioral tests including righting reflex (P8-P10), small open field (P13-P14), and negative geotaxis (P14) were determined. Hemispheric volume atrophy in males was reduced (P ​< ​0.05) by 41.9% in the normothermic-IAIP and 28.1% in the hypothermic-IAIP compared with the normothermic-PL group, and in females reduced (P ​< ​0.05) by 30.3% in the normothermic-IAIP, 45.7% in hypothermic-PL, and 55.2% in hypothermic-IAIP compared with the normothermic-PL group after HI. Hypothermia improved (P ​< ​0.05) the neuroprotective effects of hIAIPs in females. The neuroprotective efficacy of hIAIPs was comparable to hypothermia in female rats (P ​= ​0.183). Treatment with hIAIPs, hypothermia, and hIAIPs with hypothermia decreased (P ​< ​0.05) the latency to enter the peripheral zone in the small open field test in males. We conclude that hIAIPs provide neuroprotection from HI brain injury that is comparable to the protection by hypothermia, hypothermia increases the effects of hIAIPs in females, and hIAIPs and hypothermia exhibit some sex-related differential effects.

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