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Primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma with high PD-L1 expression benefited from immunotherapy: A case report and bioinformatic analysis.

Histiocytic sarcoma is an aggressive haematopoietic malignancy accounting for less than 1% of haematolymphoid neoplasms with a diagnosis based on morphology and immunophenotype of tissue biopsies with a very poor prognosis. Here, we report a 45-year-old man who was diagnosed with primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma with systemic metastases, with partial remission (PR) treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, but it relapsed soon after therapy above. Tests demonstrated that TMB was 21 Muts/Mb PD-L1 expression was 90% positive, and the disease has been well-controlled over 3 years using immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab and pembrolizumab). Bioinformatic pan-cancer analysis verified that there was the highest genetic alteration frequency of PD-L1 in which amplification accounted for the majority of sarcoma tumour samples. Following that, we found that the genetic alteration of PD-L1 was associated with poor prognosis in sarcoma patients in terms of overall survival (OS) (p = 1.51 × 10-4 ), progress-free survival (PFS) (p = 4.90 × 10-2 ) and disease-specific survival (DSS) (p = 4.90 × 10-2 ). To our knowledge, this may be the first reported case with high PD-L1 expression in primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma who may benefit from immunotherapy such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab significantly and safely.

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