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Long-term efficacy of intrathecal cyclodextrin in patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C.

Brain & Development 2024 March 6
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disease characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and progressive neurological deterioration due to abnormal intracellular cholesterol transport. Cyclic oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) is an effective treatment for NPC; however, few reports have shown its long-term efficacy and safety. To demonstrate long-term efficacy and safety of intrathecal HPBCD (IT-HPBCD) treatment for NPC, we herein reports five patients with NPC treated using IT-HPBCD for 4-11 years.

CASES AND RESULTS: Patients' ages at the onset ranged from 1.5 to 20 years. Notably, all patients showed rapid disease progression despite treatment with miglustat before IT-HPBCD treatment. Similarly, some patients showed transient improvement; however, all patients' conditions stabilized after long-term IT-HPBCD therapy. Mild-to-moderate hearing loss was observed in three patients. Furthermore, long-term treatment with IT-HPBCD may suppress neurological deterioration in patients with NPC; however, patients still experience some disease progression.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment with IT-HPBCD may suppress neurological deterioration in patients with NPC; however, the treatment outcome is dependent on the neurological status at the time of diagnosis, and disease progression is not completely inhibited. Awareness of the disease and newborn screening is needed for earlier disease detection. In addition, further optimization of the treatment protocol and additional treatments are needed to improve patient outcomes.

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