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Electromagnetic fields regulate iron metabolism in living organisms: A review of effects and mechanism.

The emergence, evolution, and spread of life on Earth have all occurred in the geomagnetic field, and its extensive biological effects on living organisms have been documented. The charged characteristics of metal ions in biological fluids determine that they are affected by electromagnetic field forces, thus affecting life activities. Iron metabolism, as one of the important metal metabolic pathways, keeps iron absorption and excretion in a relatively balanced state, and this process is precisely and completely controlled. It is worth paying attention to how the iron metabolism process of living organisms is changed when exposed to electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the processes of iron absorption, storage and excretion in animals (mammals, fish, arthropods), plants and microorganisms exposed to electromagnetic field were summarized in detail as far as possible, in order to discover the regulation of iron metabolism by electromagnetic field. Studies and data on the effects of electromagnetic field exposure on iron metabolism in organisms show that exposure profiles vary widely across species and cell lines. This process involves a variety of factors, and the complexity of the results is not only related to the magnetic flux density/operating frequency/exposure time and the heterogeneity of the observed object. A systematic review of the biological regulation of iron metabolism by electromagnetic field exposure will not only contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of its biological effects and mechanism, but also is necessary to improve human awareness of the health related risks of electromagnetic field exposure.

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