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Long term neuropsychological outcomes of a pediatric ETANTR brain tumor: A case study.

Survivors of pediatric brain tumors are at high risk for long-term neuropsychological difficulties. In the current case study, we present longitudinal neuropsychological data spanning 10 years (from age 9 to 19 years) of a patient with a rare, very large, bifrontal, embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR), which is typically associated with poor survivorship and significant neurological impact. Results demonstrated that the patient had largely intact cognitive functioning with specific difficulties in executive functioning, fine motor skills, and adaptive functioning at her most recent neuropsychology 10-year follow-up. These results highlight outcomes for a patient with remarkable resiliency in the context of numerous risk factors (a very large tumor size, multi-modal treatment, and seizure history). Patient protective factors (a high level of cognitive reserve, family support, and appropriate comprehensive educational services) likely contributed to the patient's favorable neuropsychological outcome. The patient's age at brain tumor diagnosis (9 years) and associated treatment was at a critical period of development for emerging higher order cognitive functions which likely impacted acquisition of executive functioning skills and secondarily adaptive skill outcomes. Consequently, pediatric brain tumor survivors with ETANTR or other frontal tumors require targeted screening of executive functions and proactive interventions.

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