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Treatment strategies for ANCA-associated vasculitides: from standard protocols to future horizons.

INTRODUCTION: ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), classified into granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis represent a group of disorders characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small vessels, endothelial injury and tissue damage. The outcomes and prognosis of AAV have undergone significant changes with the introduction of glucocorticoids (GCs) and other immunosuppressants (cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil). The enhanced understanding of pathogenesis has subsequently led to the incorporation into clinical practice of drugs targeting specific therapeutic targets.

AREAS COVERED: After an extensive literature search of Pubmed, Medline, Embase of the most recent evidence, we provide an overview of available treatments, highlighting how newer drugs have integrated into standard protocols. Our review also explores potential new therapeutic targets, including B cell depletion and inhibition, T cell inhibition, complement inhibition, and IL-5 and IgE inhibition.

EXPERT OPINION: There is hope that the new treatment targets currently under study in AAV may enable a faster and more lasting clinical response, ensuring the reduction of possible side effects from therapies. Moreover, numerous aspects necessitate further exploration in the future, such as tailoring of GCs, integration of GCs-sparing agents, efficacy of combination therapy, optimal maintenance therapy, to reduce organ-damage and improve quality of life.

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