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The Effect of Empagliflozin on Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Pathway in Patients with Type 2 Cardiorenal Syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin (EMPA) demonstrates cardioprotective effects on the patients with heart failure, but its effects in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) remain unspecified. The purpose of the exploratory study was to investigate the effect of EMPA on patients with type 2 CRS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

METHODS: This study was a randomized trial of patients with type 2 CRS and DM done between December 2020 and January 2022. Patients were randomly allocated to the control group and the EMPA group using EMPA as an add-on treatment. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), janus kinase 2 (JAK-2), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) concentrations were measured in 102 patients with CRS and healthy individuals without any disease using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment. The evaluation of renal function was measured by immunoturbidimetry, and cardiac function was estimated by doppler echocardiography. Rates of adverse events and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were documented.

RESULTS: The results showed that EMPA decreased the level of IL-6 but increased the level of JAK-2 and STAT-3 in patients. Additionally, the results suggest EMPA significantly reduced the incidence of MACE compared to the control group, while the rate of adverse events did not significantly differed.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that the cardiorenal benefits conferred by EMPA might be driven by anti-inflammatory effects, cooperated with the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways, leading to modest short-term improvements in patients with type 2 CRS. The overall safety and low complication make EMPA a significant choice for clinical application.

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