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Exploring Hematological and Biochemical Disparities in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Females: A Cross-Sectional Twin Study in a Ghanaian Population.

There are sex-dependent differences in hematological and biochemical variables in adulthood attributed to the predominant effects of testosterone in males and estrogen in females. The Twin Testosterone Transfer (TTT) hypothesis proposes that opposite-sex females may develop male-typical traits due to exposure to relatively higher levels of prenatal testosterone than same-sex females. Additionally, prenatal testosterone exposure has been suggested as a correlate of current circulating testosterone levels. Consequently, opposite-sex females might exhibit male-typical patterns in their hematological and biochemical variables. Despite this hypothesis, routine laboratory investigations assign the same reference range to all females. Our cross-sectional study, conducted in Tamale from January to September 2022, included 40 twins, comprising 10 opposite-sex (OS) males (25%), 10 OS females (25%), and 20 same-sex (SS) females (50%), all aged between 18 and 27 years. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and analyzed using automated hematology and biochemistry laboratory analyzers. Results indicated that levels of hemoglobin, serum creatinine, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, globulins, and total testosterone were significantly higher in OS males than OS females. Conversely, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in OS females than OS males. Unexpectedly, levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total testosterone were significantly higher in SS females than OS females. Contrary to expectations, opposite-sex females did not exhibit male-typical patterns in their hematological and biochemical variables. This suggests that the TTT effect may not occur or may not be strong enough to markedly affect hematological and biochemical variables in OS females.

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