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Effective approaches to address noncompressible torso hemorrhage.

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is now considered as the major cause of preventable death after both severe military and civilian trauma. Around 20% of all trauma patients still die from uncontrolled exsanguination along with rapidly evolving hemostatic failure. This review highlights the most recent advances in the field and provides an outline for future research directions.

RECENT FINDINGS: The updated definition of NCTH includes a combination of high-grade anatomical torso injury, hemodynamic instability, urgent need for hemorrhage control and aggressive hemostatic resuscitation. Therapeutic concepts consider the following three aspects: control the bleeding source (close the tap), resuscitate to maintain organ perfusion and restore hemostasis (fill the tank), and increase the body's resistance against ischemia (upgrade the armor).

SUMMARY: The concepts for the early management of NCTH have substantially evolved over the last decade. The development of new devices and techniques combined with early intervention of hemostatic failure have contributed to more successful resuscitations. Future research needs to refine and validate their potential clinical application.

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