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Vibrio cholerae virulence and its suppression through the quorum-sensing system.

Vibrio cholerae is a cholera-causing pathogen known to instigate severe contagious diarrhea that affects millions globally. Survival of vibrios depend on a combination of multicellular responses and adapt to changes that prevail in the environment. This process is achieved through a strong communication at the cellular level, the process has been recognized as quorum sensing (QS). The severity of infection is highly dependent on the QS of vibrios in the gut milieu. The quorum may exist in a low/high cell density (LCD/HCD) state to exert a positive or negative response to control the regulatory pathogenic networks. The impact of this regulation reflects on the transition of pathogenic V. cholerae from the environment to infect humans and cause outbreaks or epidemics of cholera. In this context, the review portrays various regulatory processes and associated virulent pathways, which maneuver and control LCD and HCD states for their survival in the host. Although several treatment options are existing, promotion of therapeutics by exploiting the virulence network may potentiate ineffective antibiotics to manage cholera. In addition, this approach is also useful in resource-limited settings, where the accessibility to antibiotics or conventional therapeutic options is limited.

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