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Partial nephrectomy for renal tumors: recommendations of the Italian Society of Urology RCC working group.

INTRODUCTION: Partial nephrectomy (PN) aims to remove renal tumors while preserving renal function without affecting oncological and perioperative surgical outcomes. Aim of this paper is to summarize the current evidence on PN and to provide evidence-based recommendations on indications, surgical technique, perioperative management and postoperative surveillance of PN for renal tumors in the Italian clinical and health care system context.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This review is the result of an interactive peer-reviewing process of the recent literature on PN for renal tumors carried out by an expert panel composed of members of the Italian Society of Urology (SIU) Renal Cell Carcinoma Working Group.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: PN for localized renal tumors is not inferior to radical nephrectomy in terms of survival outcomes while significantly better preserving renal function. Loss of renal function after PN is influenced by medical comorbidities/preoperative renal function and surgical variables such volume of parenchyma preserved and ischemia time. Urologists should select the clamping strategy during PN based on their experience and patient-specific factors. PN can be performed with any surgical approach based on surgeon's expertise and skills. Robotic PN has the potential to expand the minimally invasive indications without interfering with oncological outcomes. The use of 3D virtual models, real time ultrasound and fluorescence tools to assess the anatomy and vascularization of renal tumors during PN may allow a more accurate preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance. Proper postoperative surveillance protocols are essential to detect tumor recurrences and assess functional outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: PN is the standard of care for treatment of localized T1 renal tumors. Recent data supports PN also for selected T2-T3a tumors in experienced institutions. Careful preoperative planning, adequate surgical skills and volumes and appropriate postoperative management and surveillance are paramount to optimize PN oncological and functional outcomes.

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