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Handwriting Markers for the Onset of Alzheimer's Disease.

Current Alzheimer Research 2024 Februrary 29
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease has an impact on handwriting (AD). Numerous researchers reported that fact. Therefore, examining handwriting characteristics could be a useful way to screen for AD. The aim of the article is to present the reliability and effectiveness of the AD-HS tool.

METHOD: Most of the existing studies examine either linguistic manifestations of writing or certain motor functions. However, handwriting is a complex of cognitive and motor activities. Since the influence of AD on handwriting is individual, it is important to analyze the complete set of handwriting features. The AD-HS instrument is based on this principle. Validation of the AD-HS instrument for revealing cognitive impairment in AD-diagnosed persons in comparison to the control group. The study is based on the evaluation of free handwritten texts. AD-HS includes 40 handwriting and 2 linguistic features of handwritten texts. It is based on the standard protocol for handwriting analysis. The cumulative evaluation of all features builds a quantitative AD-Indicator (ADI) as a marker of possible AD conditions. The analyzed experiment includes 53 AD-diagnosed persons and a control group of 192 handwriting specimens from the existing database.

RESULT: AD-HS shows a distinct difference in evaluated ADI for the participants (the mean value equals 0.49) and the control group (the mean value equals 0.28).

CONCLUSION: The handwriting marker of AD could be an effective supplement instrument for earlier screening. It is also useful when traditional biomarkers and neurological tests could not be applied. AD-HS can accompany therapy as an indication of its effect on a person.

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