ENGLISH ABSTRACT
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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[Consensus recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia from the Austrian Society for Nephrology 2024].

Hyponatremia is a disorder of water homeostasis. Water balance is maintained by the collaboration of renal function and cerebral structures, which regulate thirst mechanisms and secretion of the antidiuretic hormone. Measurement of serum-osmolality, urine osmolality and urine-sodium concentration help to diagnose the different reasons for hyponatremia. Hyponatremia induces cerebral edema and might lead to severe neurological symptoms, which need acute therapy. Also, mild forms of hyponatremia should be treated causally, or at least symptomatically. An inadequate fast increase of the serum sodium level should be avoided, because it raises the risk of cerebral osmotic demyelination. Basic pathophysiological knowledge is necessary to identify the different reasons for hyponatremia which need different therapeutic procedures.

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