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Associations of depressive and anxiety disorders with pulmonary disorders in the community - the PneumoLaus and PsyCoLaus studies.

INTRODUCTION: Mental health disorders figure among the many comorbidities of obstructive respiratory diseases. The multisystemic characteristics of chronic respiratory disease and its impact on quality of life could affect depressive and/or anxiety disorders. We aimed to evaluate the association of spirometric indices, ventilatory disorders and self-reported respiratory diseases with psychiatric disorders considering potential confounders.

METHODS: We analysed data from CoLaus|PsyCoLaus, a Swiss population-based cohort study, consisting of 2'774 participants (56% women; mean age: 62.3 (SD=±9.9) years) who performed spirometry and completed semi-structured psychiatric interviews. We defined ventilatory disorders using GLI-2012 references. Major depressive episode (MDE) and anxiety disorders were defined using the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual).

RESULTS: 630 subjects (22.7%) presented a recent MDE. Reversible obstructive ventilatory disorders were associated with recent MDE (OR=1.94, 95% CI95 1.10-3.43) and recent anxiety disorders (2.21 [1.16-4.22]) only in unadjusted model. Self-reported COPD and asthma were associated with MDE with ORs of 2.49 (95%CI, 1.19-5.27) and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.04-2.35) after adjustment, respectively. Possible restrictive ventilatory impairment was positively associated with recent anxiety disorders (OR=2.46, 1.10-5.51). Z-scores of FEV1, FVC and maximum mid expiratory flow (MMEF) were not associated with psychiatric disorders. There was no association between ventilatory disorders and MDE in adjusted models.

CONCLUSIONS: In this cross-sectional population-based study, the association between respiratory disorders and depressive disorders was observed for self-reported COPD and asthma, but not with objective diagnoses based on spirometry. Lung volumes are not associated with psychiatric disorders. Further prospective studies will be necessary to understand the significance of the association.

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