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Optimal timing of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination prior to cardiovascular surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass.

BACKGROUND: mRNA vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became common. We investigated the optimal timing for inoculation against SARS-COV-2 in the candidates for cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

METHODS: In 100 patients with preoperative vaccination, who underwent CPB surgery between July 2021 and February 2022, the IgG against the receptor binding domain (RBD-IgG), with a threshold of >100 binding antibody unit (BAU)/mL for adequate immunity, was measured.

RESULTS: The vaccines, including 87 BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) and 13 mRNA-1273 (Moderna), were inoculated at 98.8 ± 59.4 days before surgery. The median RBD-IgG titers before surgery, 1 day after surgery, and 1 month after surgery were 166.8, 100.0, and 84.0 BAU/mL, respectively. The standby interval (SBI) from the vaccination to the surgery showed a significantly negative correlations with the RBD-IgG titer before the surgery ( p  < 0.001). A cut-off SBI for RBD-IgG >100 BAU/mL before surgery was <81 days with a sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 62%, and area under ROC value of 0.73 ( p  = 0.03). The patients with SBI <81 days ( n  = 48) had significantly higher RBD-IgG (>100 BAU/mL) than those with SBI ⩾81 days ( n  = 52) at all perioperative periods.

CONCLUSIONS: Although 40% of the RBD-IgG titers reduce 1 day after CPB surgery, the patients who received the SARS-COV-2 vaccination within an 81-day window prior to the surgery maintained a desirable RBD-IgG level, even up to 1 month after surgery. It may be important to schedule the surgery no later than 81 days after the vaccination.

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