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Systematic Review
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Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy and Autoimmune Disorders: A Systematic Scoping Review of Published Cases.

INTRODUCTION: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) features transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning. The underlying mechanism remains elusive; however, evidence suggests the role of different physical and psychological stressors. We systematically reviewed patients presenting with TCM and autoimmunity to explore the link between the two conditions.

METHODS: We applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) to report this review. Using keywords related to autoimmune/immune-mediated diseases and TCM, we searched PubMed, Scopus, and WOS in March 2022. The final results were added to a data extraction sheet. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 26.0.

RESULTS: Our search yielded 121 studies, including 155 patients. Females were considerably predominant. Most patients had a history of autoimmune disease, and almost a third had a history of cardiovascular disease. Dyspnea and chest pain were the most common chief complaints. More than 70% of patients had experienced physical stress. Myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis were the most frequently reported autoimmune diseases.

CONCLUSION: There were similarities in age and sex compared to classic TCM. TCM should be considered as a differential diagnosis for ACS, especially in patients with a positive background of autoimmunity. A precise reporting system is required for further studies.

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