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Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation in Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism: A Prospective Study.

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the outcomes of ultrasound (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in tertiary hyperparathyroidism (THPT).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with THPT underwent RFA between September 2017 and January 2022. Laboratory parameters, including serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels, were monitored for 48 months after RFA and compared with the levels at baseline. Complications related to RFA and changes in hyperparathyroidism-related clinical symptoms were recorded before and after RFA.

RESULTS: A total of 42 patients with THPT were recruited for this study. Ultimately, 36 patients with renal failure and 2 patients who underwent successful renal transplantation (male:female, 17:21; median age, 54.5 years) were enrolled. The follow-up time was 21.5 ± 19.0 months in the 36 patients with renal failure. In these 36 patients, iPTH levels were significantly decreased to 261.1 pg/mL at 48 months compared with the baseline value of 1284.9 pg/mL ( P = 0.012). Persistent hyperparathyroidism, defined as iPTH levels maintained at > 585.0 pg/mL for 6 months after treatment, occurred in 4.0% of patients (1/25). Recurrent hyperparathyroidism, defined as iPTH levels > 585.0 pg/mL after 6 months, were 4.0% (1/25) and 0.0% (0/9) at 6 months and 4 years after treatment, respectively. In two patients with THPT after successful renal transplantation, iPTH decreased from the baseline value of 242.5 and 115.9 pg/mL to 171.0 and 62.0 pg/mL at 6 months after treatment. All complications resolved within 6 months of ablation without medical intervention, except in 10.5% (4/38) patients with permanent hypocalcemia. The overall symptom recovery rate was 58.8% (10/17). The severity scores for bone pain, arthralgia, and itchy skin associated with hyperparathyroidism improved after treatment ( P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: US-guided RFA is an effective and safe alternative to surgery in the treatment of patients with TPTH and improves hyperparathyroidism-related clinical symptoms.

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