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Implications of Sarcopenia and Glucometabolism Parameters of Muscle Derived From Baseline and End-of-Treatment 18 F-FDG PET/CT in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

OBJECTIVE: We previously found that the incidence of sarcopenia increased with declining glucose metabolism of muscle in patients with treatment-naïve diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and muscle glucometabolism using 18 F-FDG PET/CT at baseline and end-of-treatment, analyze the changes in these parameters through treatment, and assess their prognostic values.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 103 patients with DLBCL (median 54 years [range, 21-76]; male:female, 50:53) were retrospectively reviewed. Skeletal muscle area at the third lumbar vertebral (L3) level was measured, and skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated to determine sarcopenia, defined as SMI < 44.77 cm²/m² and < 32.50 cm²/m² for male and female, respectively. Glucometabolic parameters of the psoas major muscle, including maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), were measured at L3 as well. Their changes across treatment were also calculated as ΔSMI, ΔSUVmax, and ΔSUVmean; Δbody mass index was also calculated. Associations between SMI and the metabolic parameters were analyzed, and their associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were identified.

RESULTS: The incidence of sarcopenia was 29.1% and 36.9% before and after treatment, respectively. SMI ( P = 0.004) was lower, and sarcopenia was more frequent ( P = 0.011) at end-of-treatment than at baseline. The SUVmax and SUVmean of muscle were lower ( P < 0.001) in sarcopenia than in non-sarcopenia at both baseline and end-of-treatment. ΔSMI was positively correlated with ΔSUVmax of muscle ( P = 0.022). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that sarcopenia at end-of-treatment was independently negatively associated with PFS (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.469 [1.022-5.965]), while sarcopenia at baseline was independently negatively associated with OS (5.051 [1.453-17.562]).

CONCLUSION: Sarcopenic patients had lower muscle glucometabolism, and the muscular and metabolic changes across treatment were positively correlated. Sarcopenia at baseline and end-of-treatment was negatively associated with the prognosis of DLBCL.

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