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The value and complexity of studying cellular immunity against BK Polyomavirus in kidney transplant recipients.

BK Polyomavirus is of particular concern for kidney transplant recipients, due to their immunosuppression. This problem is exacerbated by the high effectiveness of antirejection therapies, which also compromise the organism's ability to fight viral infections. The long-term risk is loss of graft function through BKPyV-associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN). The assessment of host immunity and its link to the control of viral infections is a major challenge. In terms of humoral immunity, researchers have highlighted the prognostic value of the pre-transplantation anti-BKPyV immunoglobulin G titer. However, humoral immunity alone does not guarantee viral clearance, and the correlation between the humoral response and the time course of the infection remains weak. In contrast, cellular immunity variables appear to be more closely associated with viral clearance, given that the cellular immune response to the kidney transplant is the main target of immunosuppressive treatments in recipients. However, the assessment of the cellular immune response to BK Polyomavirus is complex, and many details still need to be characterized. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about BKPyV cellular immunity, as well as the difficulties that may be encountered in studying it in kidney transplant recipient. This is an essential area of research for optimizing the management of transplant recipients and minimizing the risks associated with insidious BKPyV disease.

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