JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Intraspinal narcotic analgesia in the treatment of chronic pain.

Spine 1985 October
The results of intraspinal narcotic analgesia (INA) in 43 patients with chronic nonmalignant pain syndromes are reviewed. A protocol has been established to improve proper patient selection and includes three phases of study. Most of the patients have had INA for 2 years now. In those patients qualifying for continuous delivery systems (CDS), 65% had good to excellent relief of pain while 34% were considered failures for a variety of reasons. Apparent tolerance development in many of the patients was, in fact, due to technical problems with the epidural catheter instead.

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