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To transfer or not to transfer: the dilemma of mosaic embryos - a narrative review.

A frequent finding after preimplantation genetic diagnostic testing for aneuploidies using next-generation sequencing is an embryo that is putatively mosaic. The prevalence of this outcome remains unclear and varies with technical and external factors. Mosaic embryos can be classified by the percentage of cells affected, type of chromosome involvement (whole or segmental), number of affected chromosomes or affected cell type (inner mass cell, trophectoderm or both). The origin of mosaicism seems to be intrinsic as a post-zygotic mitotic error, but some external factors can play a role. As experience has increased with the transfer of mosaic embryos, clinical practice has gradually become more flexible in recent years. Nevertheless, clinical results show lower implantation, pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates and higher miscarriage rates with mosaic embryo transfer when compared with the transfer of euploid embryos. Prenatal diagnosis is highly recommended after the transfer of mosaic embryos. This narrative review is intended to serve as reference material for practitioners in reproductive medicine who must manage a mosaic embryo result after preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies.

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