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A systematic review and meta-analysis of serum lipid concentrations in people with Down syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent chromosomal disorder, being the leading cause of intellectual disability. The increased life expectancy of individuals with DS has led to a shift in the incidence of non-communicable chronic diseases, resulting in new concerns, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to analyse the blood lipid profile of a large DS cohort to establish a baseline for evaluating health risk parameters.

METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases to identify original articles published before July 2022. Selected studies were included in the meta-analysis.

RESULTS: Fifteen studies reporting serum lipid levels in individuals with DS were incorporated into the analysis. The meta-analysis used the means and standard deviations extracted from the selected studies. The analysis encompassed 671 participants in the DS group and 898 euploid controls. The results indicated significant differences in total cholesterol [C] (mean difference [MD]: -3.34; CI: 95%: -4.94 to -1.73; P < 0.0001), HDL-C (MD: -3.39; CI: 95%: -6.72 to -0.06; P = 0.05) and triglycerides (MD: 21.48; CI: 95%: 9.32 to 33.65; P = 0.0005) levels between individuals with DS and their control counterparts.

CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with DS have less favourable blood lipid concentrations than their controls, particularly HDL-C, triglycerides, and total-C, even when grouped by age. These findings underscore the importance of closer monitoring of lipid profiles in people with DS and the necessity for specific cut-offs for this population, considering the risk for ischemic heart and Alzheimer's diseases.

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