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Analysis of the clinical diagnosis and treatment of fetal meconium peritonitis.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to improve diagnostic and therapeutic standards by examining the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of fetal meconium peritonitis (FMP), as well as the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound for FMP.

METHODS: The clinical data of 41 infants and pregnant women diagnosed with meconium peritonitis (MP) and treated at the Fujian Maternal and Child Health Hospital from January 2013 to January 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Clinical data, imaging data, complications, treatment strategies, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal prognoses, and follow-up outcomes were all analyzed.

RESULTS: The MP prenatal diagnosis rate was 56.1% (23/41), the neonatal surgery rate was 53.7% (22/41), and the survival rate was 85.4% (35/41). Intraperitoneal calcification (23 pregnant women, 56.1%), intestinal dilatation (13 pregnant women, 31.7%), peritoneal effusion (22 pregnant women, 53.7%), intraperitoneal pseudocyst (7 pregnant women, 17.1%), and polyhydramnios were diagnosed via prenatal ultrasound (18 pregnant women, 43.9%). Twenty-two pregnant women were assigned to the surgical treatment (operation) group, while 18 were assigned to the conservative treatment group. In the operation group, there were 9 cases of ileal atresia (40.9%), 7 cases of jejunal atresia (31.8%), 2 cases of atresia at the jejunum-ileum junction (9.1%), 2 cases of ileal perforation (9.1%), 1 case of ileal necrosis (4.5%), and 1 case of adhesive obstruction (4.5%). There was no statistically significant difference ( p  > .05) in the occurrence of various prenatal ultrasound findings by etiology.

CONCLUSION: Multiple prenatal ultrasound markers have been identified for MP. To improve the efficacy of newborn treatment for FMP and reduce neonatal mortality, dynamic monitoring of ultrasound image alterations and strengthened integrated perinatal management are necessary.

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