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Consensus statement on the management of hyperkalaemia-An Asia-Pacific perspective.

Nephrology 2024 Februrary 26
Hyperkalaemia is an electrolyte imbalance that impairs muscle function and myocardial excitability, and can potentially lead to fatal arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The prevalence of hyperkalaemia is estimated to be 6%-7% worldwide and 7%-10% in Asia. Hyperkalaemia frequently affects patients with chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus, particularly those receiving treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors. Both hyperkalaemia and interruption of RAAS inhibitor therapy are associated with increased risks for cardiovascular events, hospitalisations, and death, highlighting a clinical dilemma in high-risk patients. Conventional potassium-binding resins are widely used for the treatment of hyperkalaemia; however, caveats such as the unpalatable taste and the risk of gastrointestinal side effects limit their chronic use. Recent evidence suggests that, with a rapid onset of action and improved gastrointestinal tolerability, novel oral potassium binders (e.g., patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate) are alternative treatment options for both acute and chronic hyperkalaemia. To optimise the care for patients with hyperkalaemia in the Asia-Pacific region, a multidisciplinary expert panel was convened to review published literature, share clinical experiences, and ultimately formulate 25 consensus statements, covering three clinical areas: (i) risk factors of hyperkalaemia and risk stratification in susceptible patients; (ii) prevention of hyperkalaemia for at-risk individuals; and (iii) correction of hyperkalaemia for at-risk individuals with cardiorenal disease. These statements were expected to serve as useful guidance in the management of hyperkalaemia for health care providers in the region.

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