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Racial differences in P2Y12 inhibitor responsiveness in patients undergoing neuro-endovascular procedures: A cohort from the Middle East.

BACKGROUND: Data on P2Y12 inhibitors responsiveness from the middle east is scarce. We sought to investigate patient responsiveness to P2Y12 inhibitors within a cohort of major races that characterize the UAE population. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors for hyper and hypo-responsiveness in this population.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on adults who received either clopidogrel or ticagrelor treatments and had platelet responsiveness testing before undergoing neuro-endovascular interventions at our quaternary care hospital between March 2015 and April 2019.

RESULTS: During the study period, 249 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 17.3 % were hyper-responsive and 25.7 % were hypo-responsive to P2Y12 inhibitors. When comparing between the P2Y12 inhibitors, rates of hyper-responsiveness were significantly higher to ticagrelor when compared to clopidogrel (11 versus 6 %, p = 0.02 respectively). Contrarily, hypo-responsiveness rates were significantly higher in clopidogrel treated patients compared to their ticagrelor treated counterparts (23 versus 2 %, p < .001 respectively). Patients of Middle-Eastern origin showed a significantly higher rate of hypo-responsiveness to both clopidogrel and ticagrelor when compared to other races (41.1 % and 26.7 %, P < 0.001 respectively). Asians showed the highest rates of hyper-responsiveness for both agents. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that proton pump inhibitors and statin combination, (OR: 6.39, 95 %CI [1.60, 25.392]), and Middle East vs. Indian subcontinent patients (OR: 4.67, 95 %CI [1.79-12.14]) were independent predictors of hypo-responsiveness to both P2Y12 inhibitors.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a high rate of hypo-responsiveness to P2Y12 inhibitors in a UAE cohort of patients undergoing neuro-endovascular procedures. In addition, therapeutic responsiveness to P2Y12 inhibitors varied markedly based on the racial background. Future larger studies are needed to evaluate genetic variations that may contribute to this rate of hypo-responsiveness in our population.

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