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Modulation the Synergistic Effect of Chitosan-Sodium Alginate Nanoparticles with Ca 2+ : Enhancing the Stability of Pickering Emulsion on D-Limonene.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland) 2024 Februrary 20
Pickering emulsions (PEs) have been regarded as an effective approach to sustaining and preserving the bioactivities of essential oils. The aim of this research is to prepare a PE stabilized by chitosan/alginate nanoparticles (CS-SA NPs) for the encapsulation and stabilization of D-limonene. In this work, the influence of calcium ions (Ca2+ ) on the morphology and interaction of nanoparticles was studied, and then the preparation technology of CS-SA/Ca2+ NPs was optimized. The results showed that the presence of Ca2+ reduced the size of the nanoparticles and made them assume a spherical structure. In addition, under the conditions of 0.2 mg/mL CaCl2 , 0.6 mg/mL SA, and 0.4 mg/mL CS, the CS-SA/Ca2+ NPs had the smallest size (274 ± 2.51 nm) and high stability (-49 ± 0.69 mV). Secondly, the PE was prepared by emulsifying D-limonene with CS-SA/Ca2+ NPs, and the NP concentrations and homogenization speeds were optimized. The results showed that the small droplet size PE could be prepared with 2 mg/mL NP and a homogenization speed of 20,000 r/min, and it had excellent antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Most importantly, the emulsion showed higher activity, higher resistance to ultraviolet (UV) and a higher temperature than free D-limonene. This research provides a feasible solution for the encapsulation, protection and delivery of essential oils.

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