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Microproteomic-Based Analysis of the Goat Milk Protein Synthesis Network and Casein Production Evaluation.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland) 2024 Februrary 20
Goat milk has been consumed by humans since ancient times and is highly nutritious. Its quality is mainly determined by its casein content. Milk protein synthesis is controlled by a complex network with many signal pathways. Therefore, the aim of our study is to clearly depict the signal pathways involved in milk protein synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) using state-of-the-art microproteomic techniques and to identify the key genes involved in the signal pathway. The microproteomic analysis identified more than 2253 proteins, with 323 pathways annotated from the identified proteins. Knockdown of IRS1 expression significantly influenced goat casein composition (α, β, and κ); therefore, this study also examined the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene more closely. A total of 12 differential expression proteins (DEPs) were characterized as upregulated or downregulated in the IRS1 -silenced sample compared to the negative control. The enrichment and signal pathways of these DEPs in GMECs were identified using GO annotation and KEGG, as well as KOG analysis. Our findings expand our understanding of the functional genes involved in milk protein synthesis in goats, paving the way for new approaches for modifying casein content for the dairy goat industry and milk product development.

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