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Role of Endoscopy in the Diagnosis, Grading, and Treatment of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy and Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia.

Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) and gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) are 2 distinct gastric vascular abnormalities that may present with acute or chronic blood loss. PHG requires the presence of portal hypertension and is typically associated with chronic liver disease, whereas there is controversy about the association of GAVE with chronic liver disease and/or portal hypertension. Distinguishing between GAVE and PHG is crucial because their treatment strategies differ. This review highlights characteristic endoscopic appearances and the clinical features of PHG and GAVE, which, in turn, aid in their appropriate management.

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