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Blood pressure status, trajectories and cardiovascular disease: the CoLaus|PsyCoLaus prospective study.

Open Heart 2024 Februrary 23
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adequate treatment of high BP should reduce the risk of CVD, but this association has seldom been assessed in a general population setting.

METHODS: Population-based prospective study conducted in Lausanne, Switzerland, with a follow-up between 2003 and 2021. Participants were categorised as normal BP, untreated high BP, treated and uncontrolled BP and treated and controlled BP. Total and CVD mortality as well as any CVD event were assessed.

RESULTS: 5341 participants (65% normal, 17.4% untreated, 8.8% treated and uncontrolled and 8.8% treated and controlled) were included. After a median follow-up of 14 years (IQR: 11-15), 575 CVD events occurred. Relative to participants with normal BP, multivariable-adjusted HRs (and 95% CI) for total CVD were 1.38 (1.11 to 1.72) for untreated, 1.35 (1.04 to 1.76) for treated and uncontrolled and 1.50 (1.15 to 1.95) for treated and controlled. The corresponding HRs for CVD mortality (112 events) were 0.94 (0.52 to 1.70), 1.77 (1.00 to 3.12) and 2.52 (1.50 to 4.23), respectively. For total mortality (677 events), the HRs were 1.24 (1.01 to 1.52), 1.26 (0.99 to 1.60) and 1.27 (0.99 to 1.62), respectively. Sensitivity analysis using BP status during a 5-year period and categorising participants as always normal, always treated and uncontrolled, always treated and controlled and other led to similar findings.

CONCLUSION: Over a long follow-up period of 14 years, BP control was not associated with reduction of CVD events, CVD-related or total mortality. This finding should help define further studies on factors affecting CVD and mortality in people treated for hypertension in the general population.

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