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Prevalence and spectrum of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a cohort of ovarian cancer patients from the Salento peninsula (Southern Italy): a matter of preventive health.

Oncotarget 2024 Februrary 23
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this exploratory, descriptive study was to characterize the deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants evaluated by genetic testing in a group of Ovarian cancer patients living in the Salento peninsula (Southern Italy).

METHODS: From June 2014 to July 2023, patients with histologically confirmed high-grade serous carcinoma, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who were referred to Lecce Familial Cancer Clinic were considered. BRCA-mutation genetic testing was performed on these patients. Socio-demographic data and cancer epidemiology were assessed, and Next Generation Sequencing and Sanger DNA sequencing were performed.

RESULTS: The median age at the diagnosis of 332 ovarian cancer patients collected was 57 years. The pedigree analyses showed that 28.6% had familial cases and 39.7% had sporadic cases. Of the 319 patients submitted to genetic testing, 29.8% were carriers of BRCA1/2 mutation, 75.8% at BRCA1 and 24.2% at BRCA2 gene. Of the 21 BRCA1 mutations, the variant c.5266dupC was the most frequent alteration (28.4%). With respect to BRCA2, 13 mutations were found and the variant c.9676delT was the most frequently recorded (6.3%).

CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that the prevalence of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was higher than reported by other studies. A broader understanding of the prevalence and role of BRCA mutations in development, response to treatment, and prognosis represents an exciting and developing area of ovarian cancer treatment and prevention.

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