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Insights into the diagnosis and management of sarcoid uveitis: A review.

Sarcoidosis is a leading cause of non-infectious uveitis that commonly affects middle-aged individuals and has a female preponderance. The disease demonstrates age, sex and ethnic differences in clinical manifestations. A diagnosis of sarcoidosis is made based on a compatible clinical presentation, supporting investigations and histologic evidence of non-caseating granulomas, although biopsy is not always possible. Multimodal imaging with widefield fundus photography, optical coherence tomography and angiography can help in the diagnosis of sarcoid uveitis and in the monitoring of treatment response. Corticosteroid remains the mainstay of treatment; chronic inflammation requires steroid-sparing immunosuppression. Features on multimodal imaging such as vascular leakage may provide prognostic indicators of outcome. Female gender, prolonged and severe uveitis, and posterior involving uveitis are associated with poorer visual outcomes.

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