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Cost-effectiveness of latent tuberculosis infection testing and treatment with 6-week regimen among key population in rural communities in China: a decision analysis study.

PURPOSE: Several model studies suggested the implementation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) testing and treatment could greatly reduce the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and achieve the 2035 target of the "End TB" Strategy in China. The present study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of LTBI testing and TB preventive treatment among key population (≥ 50 years old) susceptible to TB at community level in China.

METHODS: A Markov model was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of LTBI testing using interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) and subsequent treatment with 6-month daily isoniazid regimen (6H) (as a standard regimen for comparison) or 6-week twice-weekly rifapentine and isoniazid regimen (6-week H2 P2 ) in a cohort of 10,000 adults with an average initial age of 50 years.

RESULTS: In the base-case analysis, LTBI testing and treatment with 6H was dominated (i.e., more expensive with a lower quality-adjusted life year (QALY)) by LTBI testing and treatment with 6-week H2 P2 . LTBI testing and treatment with 6-week H2 P2 was more effective than no intervention at a cost of $20,943.81 per QALY gained, which was below the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $24,211.84 per QALY gained in China. The one-way sensitivity analysis showed the change of LTBI prevalence was the parameter that most influenced the results of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs).

CONCLUSION: As estimated by a Markov model, LTBI testing and treatment with 6-week H2 P2 was cost-saving compared with LTBI testing and treatment with 6H, and it was considered to be a cost-effective option for TB control in rural China.

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