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Incidence and Risk Factors of the Caudal Screw Loosening after Pelvic Fixation for Adult Spinal Deformity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Asian Spine Journal 2024 Februrary 22
The purpose of this study was to assess the factors affecting caudal screw loosening after spinopelvic fixation for adult patients with spinal deformity. This meta-analysis calculated the weighted mean difference (WMD) and odds ratio (OR) using Review Manager ver. 5.3 (RevMan; Cochrane, London, UK). The loosening group was older than the control group (WMD, 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-3.87; p=0.01). The S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) could prevent the caudal screw from loosening (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.94; p=0.03). However, gender distribution (p=0.36), the number of fusion segments (p=0.24), rod breakage (p=0.97), T-score (p=0.10), and proximal junctional kyphosis (p=0.75) demonstrated no difference. Preoperatively, only pelvic incidence (PI) in the loosening group was higher (WMD, 5.08; 95% CI, 2.71-7.45; p<0.01), while thoracic kyphosis (p=0.09), lumbar lordosis (LL) (p=0.69), pelvic tilt (PT) (p=0.31), pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) (p=0.35), sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (p=0.27), and T1 pelvic angle (TPA) demonstrated no difference (p=0.10). PI-LL (WMD, 6.05; 95% CI, 0.96-11.14; p=0.02), PT (WMD, 4.12; 95% CI, 0.99-7.26; p=0.01), TPA (WMD, 4.72; 95% CI, 2.35-7.09; p<0.01), and SVA (WMD, 13.35; 95% CI, 2.83-3.87; p=0.001) were higher in the screw loosening group immediately postoperatively. However, TK (p=0.24) and LL (p=0.44) demonstrated no difference. TPA (WMD, 8.38; 95% CI, 3.30-13.47; p<0.01), PT (WMD, 6.01; 95% CI, 1.47-10.55; p=0.01), and SVA (WMD, 23.13; 95% CI, 12.06-34.21; p<0.01) were higher in the screw loosening group at the final follow-up. However, PI-LL (p=0.17) demonstrated no significant difference. Elderly individuals were more susceptible to the caudal screw loosening, and the S2AI screw might better reduce the caudal screw loosening rate than the iliac screws. The lumbar lordosis and sagittal alignment should be reconstructed properly to prevent the caudal screw from loosening. Measures to block sagittal alignment deterioration could also prevent the caudal screw from loosening.

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