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Unintentional injury deaths associated with sport and recreation in Québec, Canada, 2006-2019.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined trends in the frequencies and rates of deaths associated with unintentional injuries in sport and recreation in Québec, Canada, for the period January 2006-December 2019.

METHODS: In this descriptive retrospective study, data were extracted from the database of the Bureau du coroner du Québec. Incidence rates were calculated using participation data from the Étude des blessures subies au cours de la pratique d'activités récréatives et sportives au Québec (ÉBARS) and Canadian census population data. Poisson regression was used to investigate changes in death rates over the 14-year period by estimating incidence rate ratios.

RESULTS: There were 1937 unintentional injury deaths and the population-based death rate was 1.72 per 100 000 person-years. The participation-based rate was 1.40 per 100 000 participant-years, considering the 24 matching activities in both ÉBARS' editions. Using both population-based and participation-based denominators, separate analyses consistently showed declining death rates in non-motorised navigation and cycling. Deaths related to all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, swimming, cycling, motorised navigation and non-motorised navigation activities accounted for 80.2% of all deaths. Drowning was documented as a cause of death in 39.3% of all fatalities. Males represented 86.8% of all deaths, with males aged 18-24 years and 65 and over having the highest rates.

CONCLUSION: The death rates of unintentional injury deaths associated with non-motorised navigation and cycling declined, from January 2006 to December 2019. The characteristics and mechanisms of drowning deaths and fatalities that occurred in activities associated with higher death frequencies and rates need to be further investigated.

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