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Heterozygous CAPZA2 mutations cause global developmental delay, hypotonia with epilepsy: a case report and the literature review.

Journal of Human Genetics 2024 Februrary 20
CAPZA2 encodes the α2 subunit of CAPZA, which is vital for actin polymerization and depolymerization in humans. However, understanding of diseases associated with CAPZA2 remains limited. To date, only three cases have been documented with neurodevelopmental abnormalities such as delayed motor development, speech delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and a history of seizures. In this study, we document a patient who exhibited seizures, mild intellectual disability, and impaired motor development yet did not demonstrate speech delay or hypotonia. The patient also suffered from recurrent instances of respiratory infections, gastrointestinal and allergic diseases. A novel de novo splicing variant c.219+1 G > A was detected in the CAPZA2 gene through whole-exome sequencing. This variant led to exon 4 skipping in mRNA splicing, confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the third study on human CAPZA2 defects, documenting the fourth unambiguously diagnosed case. Furthermore, this splicing mutation type is reported here for the first time. Our research offers additional support for the existence of a CAPZA2-related non-syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder. Our findings augment our understanding of the phenotypic range associated with CAPZA2 deficiency and enrich the knowledge of the mutational spectrum of the CAPZA2 gene.

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