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BRASH syndrome with a complete heart block- a case report.

INTRODUCTION: BRASH syndrome (Bradycardia, Renal failure, Atrioventricular (AV) nodal blocking agent, Shock and Hyperkalemia) is a recently emerging diagnosis that describes the profound bradycardia seen in patients on AV nodal blockers who present with acute kidney injury (AKI) and hyperkalemia.

CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 68 years old female patient with past history of hypertension taking atenolol and Enalapril presented to emergency department with the complaint of loss of consciousness of 02 hours duration. She had 03 days history of fatigue, poor oral intake, decreased urine output, appetite loss, vertigo and global headache. Her vital signs were blood pressure of 60/40 mmHg, absent radial pulse and temperature of 36.4 °C. Her systemic examination was remarkable for dry buccal mucosa; apical heart rate was 22 beats per minute. Glasgow Coma Scale was 13/15. Her laboratory tests showed creatinine of 1.83 mg/dL, blood urea nitrogen of 89 mg/dL and potassium elevated to the level of 6.39 mEq/dL. ECG revealed complete heart block with a normal QT interval and T waves and no U waves with ventricular rate of 22 beats per minute. Her previous medications were discontinued and the patient was resuscitated with intravenous (IV) fluids. She was given 03 doses of 1 mg atropine every 5 minutes but there was no increment in heart rate. She was given 50% dextrose with 10 international units of regular insulin, 1 g of calcium gluconate and Intravenous perfusion of norepinephrine and dopamine. Subsequently, after 14 hours of ICU admission the patient had a cardiac arrest with asystole and resuscitation was attempted but she couldn't survive.

CONCLUSION: BRASH syndrome is largely an under-recognized life threatening clinical diagnosis. Physicians should have high index of suspicion for BRASH when they encounter patients with bradycardia, hyperkalemia, and renal failure, as timely diagnosis is crucial in the management.

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