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The therapeutic effect of MSCs and their extracellular vesicles on neuroblastoma.

Neuroblastoma is a common inflammatory-related cancer during infancy. Standard treatment modalities including surgical interventions, high-dose chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy are not able to increase survival rate and reduce tumor relapse in high-risk patients. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known for their tumor-targeting and immunomodulating properties. MSCs could be engineered to express anticancer agents (i.e., growth factors, cytokines, pro-apoptotic agents) or deliver oncolytic viruses in the tumor microenvironment. As many functions of MSCs are mediated through their secretome, researchers have tried to use extracellular vesicles (EVs) from MSCs for targeted therapy of neuroblastoma. Here, we reviewed the studies to figure out whether the use of MSCs could be worthwhile in neuroblastoma therapy or not. Native MSCs have shown a promoting or inhibiting role in cancers including neuroblastoma. Therefore, MSCs are proposed as a vehicle to deliver anticancer agents such as oncolytic viruses to the neuroblastoma tumor microenvironment. Although modified MSCs or their EVs have been shown to suppress the tumorigenesis of neuroblastoma, further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to come to a conclusion.

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