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Magnesium Disorders: Core Curriculum 2024.

Magnesium is ubiquitous in nature. It sits at the origin of the food chain, occupying the center of chlorophyl in plants. In humans, magnesium is critical to diverse molecular and catalytic processes, including energy transfer and maintenance of the genome. Despite its abundance, hypomagnesemia is common and often goes undiagnosed. This is in spite of epidemiologic data linking low magnesium with chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus. Clinically significant hypermagnesemia is encountered less frequently, but the presentation may be dramatic. Advances in molecular biology and the elucidation of the genetic causes of magnesium disorders have enhanced our understanding of their pathophysiology. Treatment approaches are also changing. The repurposing of newer medications, such as sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, offers new therapeutic options. In this review we integrate knowledge in this rapidly evolving field to provide clinicians and trainees with a resource for approaching common clinical scenarios involving magnesium disorders.

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