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Hospitalisation and mortality among privately insured individuals with COVID-19 in the United States: The role of intellectual disabilities and Neurogenetic disorders.

BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and neurogenetic conditions (IDNDs) are at greater risk for comorbidities that may increase adverse outcomes for this population when they have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study aims are to examine the population-level odds of hospitalisation and mortality of privately insured individuals with COVID-19 with and without IDNDs IDs, controlling for sociodemographics and comorbid health conditions.

METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 1174 individuals with IDs and neurogenetic conditions within a population of 752 237 de-identified, privately insured, US patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 2020 and September 2020. Odds of hospitalisation and mortality among COVID-19 patients with IDNDs adjusted for demographic characteristics, Health Resources and Services Administration region, states with Affordable Care Act and number of comorbid health conditions were analysed.

RESULTS: Patients with IDNDs overall had higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalisation than those without IDNDs (35.01% vs. 12.65%, P < .0001) and had higher rates of COVID-19 mortality than those without IDNDs (4.94% vs. .88%, P < .0001). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, the odds of being hospitalised for COVID-19 associated with IDNDs was 4.05 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.56-4.61]. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidity count, the odds of hospitalisation for COVID-19 associated with IDNDs was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61). The odds of mortality from COVID-19 for individuals with IDNDs adjusted for sociodemographic factors only was 4.65 (95% CI 3.47-6.24). The odds of mortality from COVID-19 for patients with IDNDs adjusted for sociodemographic factors and comorbidity count was 2.70 (95% CI 2.03-3.60). A major finding of the study was that even when considering the different demographic structure and generally higher disease burden of patients with IDNDs, having a IDND was an independent risk factor for increased hospitalisation and mortality compared with patients without IDNDs.

CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with IDNDs had significantly higher odds of hospitalisation and mortality after adjusting for sociodemographics. Results remained significant with a slight attenuation after adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbidities. Adjustments for comorbidity count demonstrated a dose-response increase in odds of both hospitalisation and mortality, illustrating the cumulative effect of health concerns on COVID-19 outcomes. Together, findings highlight that individuals with IDNDs experience vulnerability for negative COVID-19 health outcomes with implications for access to comprehensive healthcare.

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