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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: everything the clinician needs to know.

Lancet 2024 Februrary 15
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly recognised and diagnosed in clinical practice, a trend driven by an ageing population and a rise in contributing comorbidities, such as obesity and diabetes. Representing at least half of all heart failure cases, HFpEF is recognised as a complex clinical syndrome. Its diagnosis and management are challenging due to its diverse pathophysiology, varied epidemiological patterns, and evolving diagnostic and treatment approaches. This Seminar synthesises the latest insights on HFpEF, integrating findings from recent clinical trials, epidemiological research, and the latest guideline recommendations. We delve into the definition, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and management strategies (non-pharmacological and pharmacological) for HFpEF. We highlight ongoing clinical trials and future developments in the field. Specifically, this Seminar offers practical guidance tailored for primary care practitioners, generalists, and cardiologists who do not specialise in heart failure, simplifying the complexities in the diagnosis and management of HFpEF. We provide practical, evidence-based recommendations, emphasising the importance of addressing comorbidities and integrating the latest pharmacological treatments, such as SGLT2 inhibitors.

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