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Cytogenetic, Clinical, Hematologic, Demographic, Immunohistochemical, and Flow Cytometry Characteristics of Patients with Plasma Cell Neoplasm in Five Years: A First Report from Iran.

BACKGROUND: The aggregation of clonal plasma cells causes plasma cell neoplasms, which vary in severity and clinical outcomes. The present research focused on the epidemiological, clinical, immunologic, and cytogenetic characteristics of plasma cell neoplasms.

METHODS: In this five-year retrospective cross-sectional study, demographic information such as age and sex, calcium elevation, renal insufficiency, anemia, and bone lesion (CRAB) characteristics, as well as laboratory data including bone marrow and peripheral blood film results, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and cytogenetic study outcomes were collected at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics software (version 20.0). Descriptive statistics were reported as numbers, percentages, and mean±SD.

RESULTS: 417 newly diagnosed plasma cell neoplasm patients were confirmed by bone marrow or other tissue biopsy tests. 279 patients were men (66.9%). The most prevalent age group was 60-64 years old (18.46%). Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) affected 355 (85.13%) patients, while monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) affected 6 (1.43%) patients. Solitary plasmacytoma was seen in 56 (13.42%) patients. At the time of diagnosis, 119 (33.52%) of 355 PCM patients were asymptomatic, whereas 236 (66.47%) patients had at least one CRAB symptom, 55 (15.49%) had two or more, and 14 (3.94%) had three or more. There were 7 (1.97%) cases of amyloidosis. Cytogenetic abnormalities were found in 51.28% (40/78) of the patients. Twenty-one individuals (52.5%) were hyperdiploid with multiple trisomy, while 19 (47.50%) were not.

CONCLUSION: When diagnosed, Iranian PCM patients might have more advanced disease. PCM was more prevalent in young adults, and hyperdiploid was the most common cytogenetic finding in this investigation.

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